I think another interesting example to compare to (which also relates to Asaf Ifergan’s comment) is private research institutes and labs. I think they are much more focused on specific goals, and give their researchers different incentives than academia, although the actual work might be very similar. These kinds of organizations span a long range between academia and industry.
There are of course many such example, some of which are successful and somre are probably not that much. Here are some examples that come to my mind: OpenAI, DeepMind, The Institute for Advanced Study, Bell Labs, Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence, MIGAL (Israel).