Welfare biology is the study of living things considered as moral patients. The discipline’s main purpose is to determine the circumstances affecting wild animal welfare. Applied welfare biology, in turn, is the application of welfare biology to identify interventions that affect the welfare of wild animals (Faria & Horta 2019). The field was established by economist Yew-Kwang Ng in a seminal 1995 paper (Ng 1995).
Carpendale, Max (2015) Welfare biology as an extension of biology: Interview with Yew-Kwang Ng, Relations, vol. 3, pp. 197–202.
Faria, Catia & Oscar Horta (2019) Welfare biology, in Bob Fischer (ed.) The Routledge Handbook of Animal Ethics, New York: Routledge, pp. 455–466.
Groff, Zach & Yew-Kwang Ng (2019) Does suffering dominate enjoyment in the animal kingdom? An update to welfare biology, Biology and Philosophy, vol. 34, pp. 1–16.
Ng, Yew-Kwang (1995) Towards welfare biology: Evolutionary economics of animal consciousness and suffering, Biology and Philosophy, vol. 10, pp. 255–285.
Ng, Yew-Kwang (2016) How welfare biology and commonsense may help to reduce animal suffering, Animal Sentience, vol. 7, pp. 1–10.